|Energy Saving Stoves – The Significance for Kenya|
In Kenya traditional biomass accounts for 97% of national domestic energy requirement mainly cooking . Fuelwood demand in the country is 3.5 million tonnes per year while its supply is 1.5 million tonnes per year. The massive deficit in fuelwood supply has led to high rates of deforestation in both exotic and indigenous vegetation resulting to adverse environmental effects such as desertification, land degradation, droughts and famine.
The high demand for fuelwood in the country has created a need to enhance the adoption of energy saving stoves in the rural areas where firewood is the main source of cooking energy. It is in an effort to reduce these problems that PSDA through collaboration with other Development Partners initiated “Promotion of Improved Energy Stoves” in January 2006. The aim of the project was to triple the production and adoption of improved energy stoves from 15,000 to 45,000 within 1 year in 12 districts in Kenya. This was achieved by far leading to up-scaling to other areas and extension of the project up to 2011.
Jiko kisasa and Rocket stoves
Jiko kisasa and Rocket stoves are the two types of firewood stoves promoted by the project.
Jiko kisasa is a stove that was developed in Kenya in the 80’s after intensive research by many institutions under the leadership of Ministry of Energy, GTZ and Maendeleo ya Wanawake Organization(MYWO). Kisasa stoves have an efficiency of 35% - 40% compared to the three stones fire place. Jiko kisasa has many other local names such as Maendeleo jiko, Upesi jiko. In the last 30 years many organizations such as the Ministry’s of Agriculture and Energy, Practical action (formerly ITDG) have been disseminating and promoting the technology.
The rocket stove on the other hand is a recently developed technology by APROVECHO research center with trials done in many African countries. Rocket stoves have an efficiency of 50% - 60% compared to the three stones fire place. PSDA introduced the technology on pilot basis in Keumbu division in Kisii for one year before scaling up to other areas. Within project areas rocket stoves are made in different versions and sizes to meet each client’s need such as households, hotel, institutional stoves and ovens. The project focuses on capacity building at the local level to continue increasing access to firewood efficient stoves for many rural households and institutions.
Areas of intervention
In order to identify interventions that would address the problem of low adoption a baseline survey was done and it formed the basis for designing interventions. Continuous evaluation of the strategies has enabled the project to identify key adoption drivers and concentrate on them, the interventions include: